For the first time Sloan Great Wall was discovered in 2003 in the framework of the project Sloan Digital Sky Survey - the scientific mapping of hundreds of millions of galaxies, to determine the presence of the largest objects in the universe. Sloan Great Wall is a giant galactic filament, consisting of a number of superclusters, are distributed throughout the universe. Due to its length of 1.4 billion light years, once the "wall" was considered the largest objects in the universe.
Quasars are high-energy astronomical objects located in the center of galaxies. It is believed that the center of quasars are supermassive black holes, which are drawn on surrounding matter. This leads to a huge radiation, whose power is 1000 times more than all the stars in the galaxy. Currently the third largest object in the universe is a group of quasars Huge-LQG, consisting of 73 quasars scattered over 4 billion light-years.
Sprawling over 5 billion light-years Giant GRB Ring is the second largest object in the universe. This place attracts attention due to its unusual shape. Astronomers studying the gamma-ray bursts (huge bursts of energy, which are formed as a result of the death of massive stars), have discovered a series of nine wavelet sources which are over the same distance from the Earth. These bursts in the sky formed a ring 70 times greater than the diameter of Moon.
Northern Crown extends to 10 billion light-years, making it twice Giant galactic gamma-rings. Since the brightest gamma-ray bursts produce more massive stars, usually located in the areas of space, which contains more matter, every time astronomers metaphorically considered each such surge like an injection needle into something bigger.
Scientists believe that the expansion of the universe is not random. There are theories that all galaxies are organized into a single space epic proportions structure resembling filamentous compounds that combine with each other dense areas. These filaments are scattered among less dense sign. This structure is called by scientists the cosmic web.